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              系統|Linux操作系統概述

              Linux系統的起源與發展

              Linux是一套能夠免費運用和自在傳播的,相似于UNIX作風的操作系統。Linux最早是由芬蘭人托瓦茲(Linus Torvalds)設計的。

              由于UNIX的商業化,很遺憾,它一般只運行在昂貴的工作臺上,普通人難得一見。后來Andrew Tannebaum教授開發了Minix操作系統,發布在網上,供人們免費使用,因為Minix具有UNIX的特點,但是由與UNIX不完全兼容,所以1991年10月托瓦茲自己動手寫了一個UNIX PC版本,同年11月,在很多熱新的支持者的幫助下開發和推出了第一個穩定的Linux0.10工作版本。

              后來1994年的3月,Linux1.0版本出現,在Linux設計過程中,借鑒了很多UNIX的思想,但是源代碼都是重寫的。 后面發展迅速并有很多的IT公司的加入開發,這時Linux迅速發展并普及并進入了商業領域。在1995年6月,發布了Linux 2.0版本,強大的它已經支持很多處理器,而且具有了強大的網絡功能,并增強了系統的文件與虛擬內存的性能,同時可以為文件系統提供獨立的高速緩存設備。

              如今它已經受到了更多企業用戶的重視,Linux正日益成為一個令人生畏的對手。

              系統|Linux操作系統概述

              Linux系統的組成

              操作系統是一臺計算機必不可少的系統軟件,是整個計算機系統的靈魂。Linux操作系統由內核(Kernel),外殼(shell)和應用程序三大部分組成。硬件平臺是Linux操作系統運行的基礎。

              linux系統的內核:內核是linux系統的心臟,是運行程序和管理硬件設備的 核心程序,負責控制硬件設備,管理文件系統,程序流程以及其他工作。

              linux系統的外殼:外殼程序是系統的用戶界面,提供用戶與內核進行交互操作的一種接口。它接收用戶命令,傳達給內核處理,內核處理并把結果傳送到界面。

              linux系統的應用程序:1.文本處理工具。2.X Window。3.編程語言和開發工具。4.Internet工具軟件。5.數據庫。

              系統|Linux操作系統概述

              Linux系統的特點

              Linux操作系統以它的安全性,高效性和靈活性著稱,它能夠實現幾乎全部UNIX的特性,還具有多任務,多用戶的能力。

              特點

              1. 自由軟件,源碼公開
              2. 多用戶
              3. 多任務并發
              4. 可靠的安全系統
              5. 良好的可移植性
              6. 豐富的網絡功能
              7. 設備的獨立性
              8. 良好的用戶界面

               

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