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              Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              相信很多新手同學才開始學習Python的時候,對于線程技術很是困惑,今天就給大家帶來了Python新手入手線程技術的教程,希望可以幫到大家。

              1.線程基礎1.1.線程狀態線程有5種狀態,狀態轉換的過程如下圖所示:

              Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              1.2. 線程同步(鎖) 多線程的優勢在于可以同時運行多個任務(至少感覺起來是這樣)。但是當線程需要共享數據時,可能存在數據不同步的問題。考慮這樣一種情況:一個列表里所有元素都是0,線程”set”從后向前把所有元素改成1,而線程”print”負責從前往后讀取列表并打印。那么,可能線程”set”開始改的時候,線程”print”便來打印列表了,輸出就成了一半0一半1,這就是數據的不同步。為了避免這種情況,引入了鎖的概念。

              鎖有兩種狀態——鎖定和未鎖定。每當一個線程比如”set”要訪問共享數據時,必須先獲得鎖定;如果已經有別的線程比如”print”獲得鎖定了,那么就讓線程”set”暫停,也就是同步阻塞;等到線程”print”訪問完畢,釋放鎖以后,再讓線程”set”繼續。經過這樣的處理,打印列表時要么全部輸出0,要么全部輸出1,不會再出現一半0一半1的尷尬場面。

              線程與鎖的交互如下圖所示:

              Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              1.3. 線程通信(條件變量) 然而還有另外一種尷尬的情況:列表并不是一開始就有的;而是通過線程”create”創建的。如果”set”或者”print” 在”create”還沒有運行的時候就訪問列表,將會出現一個異常。使用鎖可以解決這個問題,但是”set”和”print”將需要一個無限循環——他們不知道”create”什么時候會運行,讓”create”在運行后通知”set”和”print”顯然是一個更好的解決方案。于是,引入了條件變量。

              條件變量允許線程比如”set”和”print”在條件不滿足的時候(列表為None時)等待,等到條件滿足的時候(列表已經創建)發出一個通知,告訴”set” 和”print”條件已經有了,你們該起床干活了;然后”set”和”print”才繼續運行。

              線程與條件變量的交互如下圖所示:

              Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              1.4. 線程運行和阻塞的狀態轉換 最后看看線程運行和阻塞狀態的轉換。Python新人入手線程技術教程,值得收藏

              阻塞有三種情況:

              同步阻塞是指處于競爭鎖定的狀態,線程請求鎖定時將進入這個狀態,一旦成功獲得鎖定又恢復到運行狀態;

              等待阻塞是指等待其他線程通知的狀態,線程獲得條件鎖定后,調用“等待”將進入這個狀態,一旦其他線程發出通知,線程將進入同步阻塞狀態,再次競爭條件鎖定;

              而其他阻塞是指調用time.sleep()、anotherthread.join()或等待IO時的阻塞,這個狀態下線程不會釋放已獲得的鎖定。

               

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