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              Linux中的一些系統文件

              ~/.bash_profile~/.bashrc 這兩個腳本文件中主要是存放用戶自己的一些設定,其中包括了用戶自己定義的變量和別名。如果在登錄時需要執行某些將把輸出信息傳送到屏幕上的指令,那么應該把這些指令存放在 ~/.bash_profile 文件中,而不要放在 ~/.bashrc文件中。

              /etc/bashrc 這個腳本文件中的信息是全局性的,其中包括了一些全系統使用的函數和別名的設定,如umask的設定。但是環境變量的設定并不放在這個文件中,而是放在 /etc/profile文件中。

              ~/.bash_logout這個腳本文件也是存放在用戶(每個用戶一個這樣的文件)的家目錄中,每當用戶退出系統時就會運行該腳本。它的主要作用是在用戶退出系統時,自動運行某些程序。如自動備份一些重要的并在用戶登錄后更改過的文件,及刪除沒用的臨時文件等。

              Linux中的一些系統文件

              ~/.bash_history文件是存放用戶使用過的命令,每個命令一行。每當用戶登錄bash 之后,bash 就會立即將這個文件中的所有歷史命令讀入內存,這也是為什么用戶可以他使用過的歷史命令的原因。可以使用下列命令獲取歷史命令的總數:

              goddog@ubuntu:~$ history | wc -l

              327

              由于歷史命令的記錄太多,為了減少輸出,使用 tail 命令列出最近所發的10個命令:

              goddog@ubuntu:~$ tail .bash_history

              但結果只包含了上次退出 bash 之前使用過的命令,那些這次登錄后使用過的命令卻沒有顯示出來這也就說明了 ~/.bash_history 中的內容并不是實時更新的。

              通過查閱歷史記錄,其他人特別是root用戶就可以方便地獲取你曾經使用過的命令。有時又不想讓別人知道你在系統上干了什么,一個簡單的方法就是將 .bash_history 文件清空。

               

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