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              Linux系統備份方法——dd

              最近在弄系統備份,看了很多文章,學習了很多,今兒給大家介紹下dd命令,用于備份系統,和Ghost有的一拼,而且還簡單,下面給大家詳細介紹下:

              dd命令 把指定的輸入文件拷貝到指定的輸出文件中,并且在拷貝的過程中可以進行格式轉換。

              dd指令選項詳解

              if=file ——輸入文件名,缺省為標準輸入

              of=file ——輸出文件名,缺省為標準輸出

              ibs=bytes —— 一次讀入bytes個字節(即一個塊大小為 bytes 個字節)

              obs=bytes—— 次寫bytes個字節(即一個塊大小為 bytes 個字節)

              bs=bytes ——同時設置讀寫塊的大小為 bytes,可代替 ibs 和obs

              cbs=bytes —— 一次轉換bytes個字節,即轉換緩沖區大小

              skip=blocks——從輸入文件開頭跳過 blocks個塊后再開始復制

              seek=blocks——從輸出文件開頭跳過 blocks個塊后再開始復制。(通常只有當輸出文件是磁盤或磁帶時才有效)

              count=blocks——僅拷貝blocks個塊,塊大小等于 ibs 指定的字節數

              conv=conversion[,conversion…]——用指定的參數轉換文件

              ascii ——轉換EBCDIC為 ASCII

              ebcdic ——轉換ASCII為 EBCDIC

              ibm ——轉換ASCII為 alternate EBCDIC

              block ——把每一行轉換為長度為 cbs的記錄,不足部分用空格填充

              unblock ——使每一行的長度都為 cbs,不足部分用空格填充

              lcase ——把大寫字符轉換為小寫字符

              ucase ——把小寫字符轉換為大寫字符

              swab ——交換輸入的每對字節

              noerror ——出錯時不停止

              notrunc ——不截短輸出文件

              sync ——把每個輸入塊填充到ibs個字節,不足部分用空(NUL)字符補齊

              注意:指定數字的地方若以下列字符結尾乘以相應的數字:b=512,c=1, k=1024, w=2, xm=number m,kB=1000,K=1024,MB=1000*1000,M=1024*1024,GB=1000*1000*1000,G=1024*1024*1024

              備份系統的操作命令:

              Linux系統備份方法——dd

              備份操作命令示例

              恢復系統時操作命令:

              Linux系統備份方法——dd

              如下是使用dd命令備份一個文件,并進行壓縮

              dd if=/dev/sda of=~/disk1.img #disk1.img就是備份好的磁盤映像文件

              后續是壓縮文件

              gzip disk1.img #generates disk1.img.gz

              或者在創建磁盤映像文件的同時就執行壓縮:

              dd if=/dev/sda | gzip > disk.img.gz

              dd if=/dev/sda | bzip2 > disk.img.bz2

              備份系統的一個示例:

              Linux系統備份方法——dd

              備份系統示例

              恢復系統,那就執行如下步驟:

              Linux系統備份方法——dd

              此外dd命令還可以用于增加swap分區的大小,參見如下示例

              # dd if=/dev/zero of=/root/bigfile bs=1M count=128

              128+0 records in

              128+0 records out

              134217728 bytes (134 MB) copied, 3.93615 s, 34.1 MB/s

              # mkswap /root/bigfile

              Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 131068 KiB

              no label, UUID=4bdfb5e8-1aff-450a-a658-31b945e2d4e8

              # swapon /root/bigfile

              在每次開機的時候自動加載swap文件, 需要在 /etc/fstab 文件中增加一行:

              /root/bigfile swap swap defaults 0 0

              dd備份總結完畢,希望大家喜歡。

               

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