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              數據庫基礎知識:數據庫中的約束和三大范式

              一.數據庫中的范式:

              范式, 英文名稱是 Normal Form,它是英國人 E.F.Codd(關系數據庫的老祖宗)在上個世紀70年代提出關系數據庫模型后總結出來的,范式是關系數據庫理論的基礎,也是我們在設計數據庫結構過程中所要遵循的規則和指導方法,以下就是對這三個范式的基本介紹:

              第一范式(1NF):

              數據表中的每一列(字段),必須是不可拆分的最小單元,也就是確保每一列的原子性。

              例如: userInfo: ‘山東省煙臺市 1318162008’ 依照第一范式必須拆分成

              userInfo: ‘山東省煙臺市’ userTel: ‘1318162008’兩個字段

              第二范式(2NF):

              滿足1NF后要求表中的所有列,都必需依賴于主鍵,而不能有 任何一列與主鍵沒有關系(一個表只描述一件事情)。

              例如:訂單表只能描述訂單相關的信息,所以所有的字段都必須與訂單ID相關。

              產品表只能描述產品相關的信息,所以所有的字段都必須與產品ID相關。

              因此在同一張表中不能同時出現訂單信息與產品信息。

              第三范式(3NF):第三范式(3NF):滿足2NF后,要求:表中的每一列都要與主鍵直接相關,而不是間接相關(表中的每一列只能依賴于主鍵)

              例如:訂單表中需要有客戶相關信息,在分離出客戶表之后,訂單表中只需要有一個用戶

              ID即可,而不能有其他的客戶信息,因為其他的用戶信息是直接關聯于用戶ID,而不是關聯

              于訂單ID。

              注意事項:

              1.第二范式與第三范式的本質區別:在于有沒有分出兩張表。

              第二范式是說一張表中包含了多種不同實體的屬性,那么必須要分成多張表,第三范式是要求已經分好了多張表的話,一張表中只能有另一張標的ID,而不能有其他任何信息,(其他任何信息,一律用主鍵在另一張表中查詢)。

              2.必須先滿足第一范式才能滿足第二范式,必須同時滿足第一第二范式才能滿足第三范式。

              二:數據庫中的五大約束:

              數據庫中的五大約束包括:

              1.主鍵約束(Primay Key Coustraint) 唯一性,非空性;

              2.唯一約束 (Unique Counstraint)唯一性,可以空,但只能有一個;

              3.默認約束 (Default Counstraint) 該數據的默認值;

              4.外鍵約束 (Foreign Key Counstraint) 需要建立兩表間的關系;

              5.非空約束(?Not Null?Counstraint?):設置非空約束,該字段不能為空。

              詳細介紹:

              (1)[外鍵約束?(Foreign Key Counstraint)?]
              1.設置外鍵的注意事項:
              ①:只有INNODB的數據庫引擎支持外鍵,修改my.ini文件設置default-storage-engine=INNODB;
              ②:外鍵與參照列的數據類型必須相同。(數值型要求長度和無符號都相同,字符串要求類型相同,長度可以不同);
              ③:設置外鍵的字段必須要有索引,如果沒有索引,設置外鍵時會自動生成一個索引;
              2.設置外鍵的語法:
              [CONSTRAINT 外鍵名] FOREIGN KEY(外鍵字段) REFERENCES 參照表(參照字段);
              [ON DELETE SET NULL ON UPDATE CASCADE] — 設置操作完整。

              3、外鍵約束的參照操作:
              當對參照表的參照字段進行刪除或更新時,外鍵表中的外鍵如何應對。
              參照操作可選值:
              RESTRICT: 拒絕對參照字段的刪除或修改(默認);
              NO ACTION:與RESTRICT相同,但這個指令只在MySql生效;
              CASCADE:? 刪除或更新參照表的參照字段時,外鍵表的記錄同步刪除或更新;
              SET NULL: 刪除刪除或更新參照表的參照字段時,外鍵表的外鍵設為NULL (此時外鍵不能設置為NOT NULL)。

              (2)[主鍵約束]?(Primay Key Coustraint)
              1.主鍵的注意事項:主鍵默認非空,默認唯一性約束,只有主鍵可以設置自動增長(主鍵不一定自增,自增一定是主鍵)。
              2.設置主鍵的方式:

              ①:在定義列時設置:id ?? ?INT UNSIGNED PRIMARY KEY。
              ②:在列定義完成后設置:PRIMARY KEY(id)。

              其他約束沒有特殊要求因此不做解釋。

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