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              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              寫爬蟲有一個繞不過去的問題就是驗證碼,現在驗證碼分類大概有4種:

              1. 圖像類
              2. 滑動類
              3. 點擊類
              4. 語音類

              今天先來看看圖像類,這類驗證碼大多是數字、字母的組合,國內也有使用漢字的。在這個基礎上增加噪點、干擾線、變形、重疊、不同字體顏色等方法來增加識別難度。
              相應的,驗證碼識別大體可以分為下面幾個步驟:

              1. 灰度處理
              2. 增加對比度(可選)
              3. 二值化
              4. 降噪
              5. 傾斜校正分割字符
              6. 建立訓練庫
              7. 識別

              由于是實驗性質的,文中用到的驗證碼均為程序生成而不是批量下載真實的網站驗證碼,這樣做的好處就是可以有大量的知道明確結果的數據集。
              當需要真實環境下需要獲取數據時,可以使用結合各個大碼平臺來建立數據集進行訓練。

              生成驗證碼這里我使用Claptcha這個庫,當然Captcha這個庫也是個不錯的選擇。

              為了生成最簡單的純數字、無干擾的驗證碼,首先需要將claptcha.py的285行_drawLine做一些修改,我直接讓這個函數返回None,然后開始生成驗證碼:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              這里需要注意ubuntu的字體路徑,也可以在網上下載其他字體使用。生成驗證碼如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              可以看出,驗證碼有形變。對于這類最簡單的驗證碼,可以直接使用谷歌開源的tesserocr來識別。

              首先安裝:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              然后開始識別:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              可以看出,對于這種簡單的驗證碼,基本什么都不做識別率就已經很高了。有興趣的小伙伴可以用更多的數據來測試,這里我就不展開了。

              接下來,在驗證碼背景添加噪點來看看:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              生成驗證碼如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              識別:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              效果還可以。接下來生成一個字母數字組合的:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              生成驗證碼如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              第3個為小寫字母o,第4個為大寫字母O,第5個為數字0,第6個為小寫字母z,第7個為大寫字母Z,最后一個是數字2。人眼已經跪了有木有!但現在一般驗證碼對大小寫是不做嚴格區分的,看自動識別什么樣吧:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              人眼都跪的計算機當然也廢了。但是,對于一些干擾小、形變不嚴重的,使用tesserocr還是十分簡單方便的。然后將修改的claptcha.py的285行_drawLine還原,看添加干擾線的情況。

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              加了條干擾線就完全識別不出來了,那么有沒有什么辦法去除干擾線呢?

              雖然圖片看上去是黑白的,但還需要進行灰度處理,否則使用load()函數得到的是某個像素點的RGB元組而不是單一值了。處理如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              處理后的圖片如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              可以看出處理后圖片銳化了很多,接下來嘗試去除干擾線,常見的4鄰域、8鄰域算法。所謂的X鄰域算法,可以參考手機九宮格輸入法,按鍵5為要判斷的像素點,4鄰域就是判斷上下左右,8鄰域就是判斷周圍8個像素點。如果這4或8個點中255的個數大于某個閾值則判斷這個點為噪音,閾值可以根據實際情況修改。

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              處理后的圖片如下:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              好像……根本沒卵用啊?!確實是這樣的,因為示例中的圖片干擾線的寬度和數字是一樣的。對于干擾線和數據像素不同的,比如Captcha生成的驗證碼:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              從左到右依次是原圖、二值化、去除干擾線的情況,總體降噪的效果還是比較明顯的。另外降噪可以多次執行,比如我對上面的降噪后結果再進行依次降噪,可以得到下面的效果:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              再進行識別得到了結果:

              用Python機器學習搞定驗證碼

              另外,從圖片來看,實際數據顏色明顯和噪點干擾線不同,根據這一點可以直接把噪點全部去除,這里就不展開說了。

              第一篇文章,先記錄如何將圖片進行灰度處理、二值化、降噪,并結合tesserocr來識別簡單的驗證碼,剩下的部分在下一篇文章中和大家一起分享。

              作者:roy

              來源:

              http://www.hi-roy.com/2017/09/19/Python%E9%AA%8C%E8%AF%81%E7%A0%81%E8%AF%86%E5%88%AB/

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