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              Linux磁盤分區的命名方式和常用目錄?【每日一個知識點第84期-Linux】

              磁盤分區對于入門的linux來說,是非常入門的技能,也是日常管理中常用技能之一,今天我們來做一個回顧,幫助大家提升磁盤分區的技能。

              【84期主題】Linux磁盤分區的命名方式和常用目錄?

              ??Linux分區包括主分區和擴展分區,其和最多有四個;擴展分區可以再劃分邏輯分區。

              分區命名:

              Linux是先有目錄,再將物理地址映射到目錄中。在Linux操作系統中,所有路徑都是從根目錄開始。

              Linux下的分區命名比Windows下面將更加清晰詳細,但其名稱卻不容易記住。不同于Windows下的盤符,Linux通常采用設備-名稱(device-name),格式為/dev/xxyN。

              /dev?這里主要存放設備文件,包含了所有Linux系統中使用的外部設備。

              xx ?分區名的前兩個字母表示分區所在的設備類型。通常hd代表IDE磁盤,sd代表SCSI磁盤。

              y ? 這個字母表示分區所在的設備。例,/dev/hda代表第一個IDE設備,/dev/sdb代表第二個SCSI設備。

              N ? 最后的數字代表分區,前四個分區(主分區加擴展分區)是從數字1到4排列的,邏輯分區從5開始。

              ????例,/dev/hda2 ?表示第一塊IDE硬盤的第二個主分區或擴展分區;

              ????????/dev/hdb5 ?表示第二塊SCSI硬盤的第一個邏輯分區。

              掛載點:可將設備掛載到自定義目錄下,這樣到該目錄就可打開設備了。一般把硬件設備放在根目錄下的/mnt目錄下。

              ???????? mkdir cdr??//創建文件cdr

              ???????? mount? /dev/cdrom?/mnt/cdr??//將dev/cdrom設備名,掛載到/mnt/cdr下

              ???????? cd cdr??//訪問光驅內容

              ???????? umount? /dev/cdrom??//取消掛載點

              常用目錄:

              / ??? ?這就是根目錄。

              /root??這是系統管理員的目錄。它能對系統做任何事情,甚至包括刪除你的文件。

              /bin? 這里存放了標準的linux的工具,比如像ls、vi還有more等。通常來說,這個目錄已經包含在你的path系統變量里面了。當你在終端里輸入ls,系統就會去/bin目錄下面查找是不是有ls這個程序。

              /etc???這里主要存放了系統配置方面的文件。

              /dev???這里主要存放設備文件,包含了所有Linux系統中使用的外部設備。

              /home 這里主要存放你的個人數據。具體每個用戶的設置文件,用戶的桌面文件夾,還有用戶的數據都放在這里。每個用戶都有自己的用戶目錄,位置為:/home/用戶名。當然,root用戶除外。

              /tmp???這是臨時目錄。對于某些程序來說,有些文件被用了一次兩次之后,就不會再被用到,像這樣的文件就放在這里。有些linux系統會定期自動對這個目錄進行清理,因此,不能把重要的數據放在這里。

              /usr ???/usr 目錄包含所有的命令、程序庫、文檔和其它文件。這些文件在正常操作中不會被改變的。/usr目錄包含了許多子目錄:/usr/bin目錄用于存放程序;/usr/share用于存放一些共享的數據;/usr/lib目錄用于存放那些不能直接運行的,但卻是許多程序運行所必需的一些函數庫文件。

              /opt???這里主要存放那些可選的程序。安裝到/opt目錄下的程序,它所有的數據、庫文件等等都是放在同個目錄下面,因此可以隨意刪除。


              《Linux學習每日一個知識點》欄目是馬哥教育Linux云計算年薪20萬+的學員社群特別發起,分享Linux工具、Linux語法、Linux項目等知識點,幫助大家快速的了解Linux學習,快速步入Linux高薪的快車道。


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