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              Linux系統安全之chroot命令解析【每日一個知識點第100期-Linux】

              服務器安全是一個值得慎重討論的話題,作為服務器的Linux也有許多手段來確保服務器數據和網絡的安全性。今天開始,我們來盤點Linux系統中的安全相關命令。今天關注的命令是:chroot。


              chroot命令用來在指定的根目錄下運行指令。chroot,即 change root directory (更改 root 目錄)。在 linux 系統中,系統默認的目錄結構都是以/,即是以根 (root) 開始的。而在使用 chroot 之后,系統的目錄結構將以指定的位置作為/位置。

              在經過 chroot 命令之后,系統讀取到的目錄和文件將不在是舊系統根下的而是新根下(即被指定的新的位置)的目錄結構和文件,因此它帶來的好處大致有以下3個:

              增加了系統的安全性,限制了用戶的權力:

              在經過 chroot 之后,在新根下將訪問不到舊系統的根目錄結構和文件,這樣就增強了系統的安全性。這個一般是在登錄 (login) 前使用 chroot,以此達到用戶不能訪問一些特定的文件。

              建立一個與原系統隔離的系統目錄結構,方便用戶的開發:

              使用 chroot 后,系統讀取的是新根下的目錄和文件,這是一個與原系統根下文件不相關的目錄結構。在這個新的環境中,可以用來測試軟件的靜態編譯以及一些與系統不相關的獨立開發。

              切換系統的根目錄位置,引導 Linux 系統啟動以及急救系統等:

              chroot 的作用就是切換系統的根位置,而這個作用最為明顯的是在系統初始引導磁盤的處理過程中使用,從初始 RAM 磁盤 (initrd) 切換系統的根位置并執行真正的?init。另外,當系統出現一些問題時,我們也可以使用 chroot 來切換到一個臨時的系統。

              語法

              chroot(選項)(參數)

              選項

              --help:在線幫助;
              --version:顯示版本信息。

              參數

              • 目錄:指定新的根目錄;
              • 指令:指定要執行的指令。

              實例

              將target作為根目錄(運行其中的/bin/sh):

              chroot target /bin/sh

              這里,target是busybox安裝好的路徑,類似一個文件系統包含了許多工具。這樣,將會進入一個shell界面,這個shell以target為根。運行exit退出該shell又返回原來的本機環境了,也可以使用Ctrl+D。

              注意:

              • 根用戶才行
              • 如果直接chroot target默認尋找target的/bin/bash.這會以target作為根目錄

              將target作為根目錄(運行其中的/bin/ls):

              chroot target /bin/ls

              這里,target是busybox安裝好的路徑,類似一個文件系統包含了許多工具。這樣運行的是target中的ls(不是本機的/bin/ls),然后返回立即本機的目錄環境。

              注意,自己在本地編譯一個程序生成a.out之后,拷進target/bin/中這樣運行卻不行,因為它包含了動態連接的庫,需要用ldd查看a.out需要那些動態庫,將這些庫拷貝到新根的對應路徑下才能執行。

              用chroot運行自己編譯的一個程序:

              準備chroot的根目錄:

              mkdir newRoot

              編譯自己的程序:

              gcc main.c

              這里main.c生成a.out,功能是輸出hello。

              查看程序需要的庫:

              ldd a.out

              輸入之后,輸出如下:

              linux-gate.so.1 = &gt;  (0xb8034000)
              libc.so.6 = &gt; /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6 (0xb7eab000)
              /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0xb801a000)

              將程序需要的庫和程序拷貝到新根目錄下:

              cp a.out newRoot
              mkdir newRoot/lib
              cp /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6 newRoot/lib
              cp /lib/ld-linux.so.2 newRoot/lib

              這里newRoot內容將如下:

              a.out lib/

              使用chroot運行自己的程序:

              su
              chroot newRoot /a.out

              這樣就能夠正確運行a.out了,因為a.out使用到了其他的動態連接庫,所以需要將庫拷貝到newRoot中,如果沒有其他庫那么直接拷貝a.out就能運行。例如靜態編譯后的busybox,其安裝目錄中的/bin/busybox就沒有依賴其他庫。


              《Linux學習每日一個知識點》欄目是馬哥教育Linux云計算年薪20萬+的學員社群特別發起,分享Linux工具、Linux語法、Linux項目等知識點,幫助大家快速的了解Linux學習,快速步入Linux高薪的快車道。

              【超全整理】《Linux云計算從入門到精通》linux學習入門教程系列實戰筆記全放送

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