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              id命令怎么用?Linux用戶和工作組管理命令解析【每日一個知識點第170期-Linux】

              id命令可以顯示真實有效的用戶ID(UID)和組ID(GID)。UID 是對一個用戶的單一身份標識。組ID(GID)則對應多個UID。id命令已經默認預裝在大多數Linux系統中。要使用它,只需要在你的控制臺輸入id。不帶選項輸入id會顯示如下。結果會使用活躍用戶。

              當我們想知道某個用戶的UID和GID時id命令是非常有用的。一些程序可能需要UID/GID來運行。id使我們更加容易地找出用戶的UID以GID而不必在/etc/group文件中搜尋。如往常一樣,你可以在控制臺輸入man?id進入id的手冊頁來獲取更多的詳情。

              語法

              id [-gGnru][--help][--version][用戶名稱]

              選項

              -g或--group   顯示用戶所屬群組的ID。
              -G或--groups   顯示用戶所屬附加群組的ID。
              -n或--name    顯示用戶,所屬群組或附加群組的名稱。
              -r或--real    顯示實際ID。
              -u或--user    顯示用戶ID。
              -help         顯示幫助。
              -version      顯示版本信息。

              實例

              [root@localhost ~]# id
              uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1(bin),2(daemon),3(sys),4(adm),6(disk),10(wheel)

              解釋:用戶root的UID號碼 = 0,GID號碼 = 0。用戶root是下面組的成員:

              • root組GID號是:0
              • bin組GID號是:1
              • daemon組GID號是:2
              • sys組GID號是:3
              • adm組GID號是:4
              • disk組GID號是:6
              • wheel組GID號是:10

              打印用戶名、UID 和該用戶所屬的所有組,要這么做,我們可以使用 -a 選項:

              [root@localhost ~]# id -a
              uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1(bin),2(daemon),3(sys),4(adm),6(disk),10(wheel)

              輸出所有不同的組ID ,有效的,真實的和補充的,我們可以使用 -G 選項來實現:

              [root@localhost ~]# id -G
              0 1 2 3 4 6 10

              結果只會顯示GID號。你可以和/etc/group文件比較。下面是/etc/group文件的示例內容:

              只輸出有效的組ID,通過使用 -g 選項來只輸出有效組ID:

              [root@localhost ~]# id -g
              0

              輸出特定用戶信息,我們可以輸出特定的用戶信息相關的UID和GID。只需要在id命令后跟上用戶名:

              [root@localhost ~]# id www
              uid=500(www) gid=500(www) groups=500(www)

              《Linux學習每日一個知識點》欄目是馬哥教育Linux云計算年薪20萬+的學員社群特別發起,分享Linux工具、Linux語法、Linux項目等知識點,幫助大家快速的了解Linux學習,快速步入Linux高薪的快車道。

              【超全整理】《Linux云計算從入門到精通》linux學習入門教程系列實戰筆記全放送

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