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              修改密碼的命令passwd用法示例【每日一個知識點第194期-Linux】

              passwd命令用于設置用戶的認證信息,包括用戶密碼、密碼過期時間等。系統管理者則能用它管理系統用戶的密碼。只有管理者可以指定用戶名稱,一般用戶只能變更自己的密碼。

              語法

              passwd(選項)(參數)

              選項

              -d:刪除密碼,僅有系統管理者才能使用;
              -f:強制執行;
              -k:設置只有在密碼過期失效后,方能更新;
              -l:鎖住密碼;
              -s:列出密碼的相關信息,僅有系統管理者才能使用;
              -u:解開已上鎖的帳號。

              參數

              用戶名:需要設置密碼的用戶名。

              知識擴展

              與用戶、組賬戶信息相關的文件

              存放用戶信息:

              /etc/passwd
              /etc/shadow

              存放組信息:

              /etc/group
              /etc/gshadow

              用戶信息文件分析(每項用:隔開)

              例如:jack:X:503:504:::/home/jack/:/bin/bash
              jack  //用戶名
              X  //口令、密碼
              503  //用戶id(0代表root、普通新建用戶從500開始)
              504  //所在組
              :  //描述
              /home/jack/  //用戶主目錄
              /bin/bash  //用戶缺省Shell

              組信息文件分析

              例如:jack:$!$:???:13801:0:99999:7:*:*:
              jack  //組名
              $!$  //被加密的口令
              13801  //創建日期與今天相隔的天數
              0  //口令最短位數
              99999  //用戶口令
              7  //到7天時提醒
              *  //禁用天數
              *  //過期天數

              實例

              如果是普通用戶執行passwd只能修改自己的密碼。如果新建用戶后,要為新用戶創建密碼,則用passwd用戶名,注意要以root用戶的權限來創建。

              [root@localhost ~]# passwd linuxde    //更改或創建linuxde用戶的密碼;
              Changing password for user linuxde.
              New UNIX password:          //請輸入新密碼;
              Retype new UNIX password:   //再輸入一次;
              passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. //成功;

              普通用戶如果想更改自己的密碼,直接運行passwd即可,比如當前操作的用戶是linuxde。

              [linuxde@localhost ~]$ passwd
              Changing password for user linuxde. //更改linuxde用戶的密碼;
              (current) UNIX password:   //請輸入當前密碼;
              New UNIX password:         //請輸入新密碼;
              Retype new UNIX password:  //確認新密碼;
              passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. //更改成功;

              比如我們讓某個用戶不能修改密碼,可以用-l選項來鎖定:

              [root@localhost ~]# passwd -l linuxde    //鎖定用戶linuxde不能更改密碼;
              Locking password for user linuxde.
              passwd: Success           //鎖定成功;
              
              [linuxde@localhost ~]# su linuxde   //通過su切換到linuxde用戶;
              [linuxde@localhost ~]$ passwd      //linuxde來更改密碼;
              Changing password for user linuxde.
              Changing password for linuxde
              (current) UNIX password:          //輸入linuxde的當前密碼;
              passwd: Authentication token manipulation error     //失敗,不能更改密碼;

              再來一例:

              [root@localhost ~]# passwd -d linuxde  //清除linuxde用戶密碼;
              Removing password for user linuxde.
              passwd: Success                         //清除成功;
              
              [root@localhost ~]# passwd -S linuxde    //查詢linuxde用戶密碼狀態;
              Empty password.                         //空密碼,也就是沒有密碼;

              注意:當我們清除一個用戶的密碼時,登錄時就無需密碼,這一點要加以注意。


              《Linux學習每日一個知識點》欄目是馬哥教育Linux云計算年薪20萬+的學員社群特別發起,分享Linux工具、Linux語法、Linux項目等知識點,幫助大家快速的了解Linux學習,快速步入Linux高薪的快車道。

              【超全整理】《Linux云計算從入門到精通》linux學習入門教程系列實戰筆記全放送

               

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