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              【Python面試真題】- Python是如何進行內存管理的?

              【Python面試真題】- Python是如何進行內存管理的?

              答:從三個方面來說,一對象的引用計數機制,二垃圾回收機制,三內存池機制

              一、對象的引用計數機制

              Python內部使用引用計數,來保持追蹤內存中的對象,所有對象都有引用計數。

              引用計數增加的情況:

              1,一個對象分配一個新名稱

              2,將其放入一個容器中(如列表、元組或字典)

              引用計數減少的情況:

              1,使用del語句對對象別名顯示的銷毀

              2,引用超出作用域或被重新賦值

              sys.getrefcount( )函數可以獲得對象的當前引用計數

              多數情況下,引用計數比你猜測得要大得多。對于不可變數據(如數字和字符串),解釋器會在程序的不同部分共享內存,以便節約內存。

              二、垃圾回收

              1,當一個對象的引用計數歸零時,它將被垃圾收集機制處理掉。

              2,當兩個對象a和b相互引用時,del語句可以減少a和b的引用計數,并銷毀用于引用底層對象的名稱。然而由于每個對象都包含一個對其他對象的應用,因此引用計數不會歸零,對象也不會銷毀。(從而導致內存泄露)。為解決這一問題,解釋器會定期執行一個循環檢測器,搜索不可訪問對象的循環并刪除它們。

              三、內存池機制

              Python提供了對內存的垃圾收集機制,但是它將不用的內存放到內存池而不是返回給操作系統。

              1,Pymalloc機制。為了加速Python的執行效率,Python引入了一個內存池機制,用于管理對小塊內存的申請和釋放。

              2,Python中所有小于256個字節的對象都使用pymalloc實現的分配器,而大的對象則使用系統的malloc。

              3,對于Python對象,如整數,浮點數和List,都有其獨立的私有內存池,對象間不共享他們的內存池。也就是說如果你分配又釋放了大量的整數,用于緩存這些整數的內存就不能再分配給浮點數。



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